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     Tsarskoye Selo - the Town of Muses

"Here so many lyres were hang on branches..." - these words from A. Ahmatova poem could be the epigraph to the story about literature monuments of the Pushkin-town. Its fate is wonderful and unusual. Depending during Developed during 2 years as countryside Tsar residence , it is the wonderful monument of Russian architecture and garden - parking art of XVIII century. But together with it the town is obliged by its fame to some generations of poets, writers, culture workers of the Russian culture, who lived or were at it. It is called by right "The Town of Muses".
In that town the youth Pushkin years spent. He was one of Lyceum's pupils - the privilege educated building for the children of distinguished nobility and since that time the town is always connected with the poet's name.
= About Alexander Pushkin - additional information. =

N. M. Karamzin worked over "The history of the Russian State". M. U. Lermontov served there in Leib - Guardian hussar regiment in 1830-s.
F.I. Tutchev liked Tsarskoye Selo, palaces and parks of which personified for him, the well expert of history, the last greatness of Russia. Namely this goal sounds in the part of poem "The autumn late time...", written in 1858.

И на порфирные ступени
Екатерининских дворцов
Ложатся сумрачные тени
Октябрьских ранних вечеров-
И сад темнеет, как дуброва,
И при звездах из тьмы ночной,
Как отблеск славного былого,
Выходит купол золотой...

The last months of his life F. I. Tutchev spent in Tsarskoye Selo.
S.A. Esenin carried the military service there during the first years of the World War I.
Especially main role in the cultural life of Tsarskoye Selo - at the end of XIX - beginning XX century I. F. Annenskii played - he was the scientist - linguist, the deep expert of Antic culture, poet, translator. In 1896 he was appointed as director of Tsarskoselskaya men classical gymnasium (Nicolaevskaya) and took that post about 10 years.
It is interesting that little by little the meaning "tsarskosel" definited, which ment perfectly new type of man personality. So, K. I. Chukovskii, telling about A. A. Ahmatova remembered that charm luster, by which we, Petersburg inhabitants, know without mistakes people. Who have been brought up by Tsarskoye Selo". And further he wrote about I. F. Annenskii: "The same imprint I always feel in the voice, manners and gestures of more typical from tsarskosels - Innokentii Annenskii. Signs of this rare breed people : the high receptiveness to music, poetry and art, the thick taste, the irreproachable rightness of care plaster speech, excessive (easily cool) politeness in the appeal with strange people, the full absence of quick - tempered sharp, unbridled gestures, which are usual for vulgar unrulity".
The well - known lyric of the beginning of XX century - Annenskii could in his charm and refined poems deeply open the Inside men piece, choked in melancholy days, of narrow - minds, say about centuries man dream about high ideals. Pity to people, compassion to ache, love and sympathy to any alive, growing, the idea about that men's conscience can't be quiet till that time when around us there is cruelty and unjustment, suffering and wretches, these are moods, which are heart in Annenskii poetry.
He deeply felt the community of Tsarskoye Selo with the Pushkin name, called this town one of "agreements of Pushkin glory". At his immediate participation there was stood the monument to Pushkin - lyceumist.
A lot of poets devoted their works to that monument. To the number of the best of them the Annenskii poems attitude. Annenskii poems, devoted to Tsarskoye Selo, involuntarily come to memory in this town.

На синем куполе белеют облака,
И четко в высь ушли кудрявые вершины,
Но пыль уж светится, а тени стали длинны,
И к сердцу призраки плывут издалека.
Не шевелись - сейчас гвоздики засверкают,
Воздушные кусты сольются и растают,
И бронзовый поэт, стряхнув дремоты гнет,
С подставки на траву росистую спрыгнет.

Life and work of A. A. Ahmatova , deeply connected with Tsarskoye Selo. By chanceless M. I. Tsvetaeva called her "Tsarskoselskaya muse".

Смуглый отрок бродил по аллеям,
У озерных грустил берегов,
И столетие мы лелеем
Еле слышный шелест шагов.

In the poem of 1944 "All the dears' souls are on the high stars", devoted to Tsarskoye Selo, Ahmatova wrote with the full right.

Здесь столько лир повешено на ветки,
Но и моей как будто место есть.

To Tsarskoye Selo - Pushkin theme - Ahmatova constantly returned during all her life. Deep love is in the poem written in 1957:

Этой ивы листы в девятнадцатом веке увяли,
Чтобы в строчке стиха серебриться свежее стократ.
Одичалые розы пурпурным шиповником стали,
А лицейские гимны все так же заздравно звучат.

Полстолетья прошло...Щедро взыскана дивной судьбою,
Я в беспамятстве дней забывала теченье годов, -
И туда не вернусь! Но возьму и за Лету с собою
Очертанья живые моих царскосельских садов.

A.Ahmatova and Nicole Gumilev introduced in Tsarskoye Selo in Anna's gymnasium years.
Poems, devoted to Tsarskoye Selo are the inseparable part of T. G. Gnedich works. The red line came through all her life, the great feeling of poetess love. With what punctuality and deep feeling Tatiana Grigoryevna describes Ekaterininskiy park at her poem "Tsarskoye Selo".

«Зеленый парк шумит, не увядая,
Минувшее не дольше, чем вчера,
Игру теней в раздумье наблюдая
Сидит на камне, вечно молодая,
Лицейских муз прекрасная сестра…»

Delicate, muffled with the help of metaphor's and epithets, poet describes "Park at the sun rising", at her same name poem. We see perk after rain in its virginal and untouched beauty. T.G. Gnedich wrote "Wreath of sonnets" over the common name "The Muses town". Such sonnets are a lot, and each of them devoted to great Russian poets, lived in Tsarskoye Selo - they are A.S. Pushkin, V. Zhukovskii, F.; Tutchev, A. Ahmatova.
A lot of soviet writers and poets lived and worked in Pushkin - they are V.Ya. Shishkov, A.N. Tolstoy, A.R. Belyaev, K.A. Fedin and others. Silence, picturesque parks, historical sights and the main - the memory about great poet which town is covered, attracted them there.

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Oleg Novikov
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