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Vsyo te dje myi: nam tseliy mir tchugbina; Otechestvo nam Tsarskoe Selo... Alexander Pushkin

The local history guide Tsarskoye Selo and the Town of Pushkin in the Historical Time is presented to your attention .
Main events of more than 300-year history of the town of Pushkin are reflected in the guide.
The project was carried out from 2011 to 2012 according to the order of the municipal formation of the town of Pushkin within limits of the Municipal grant in the nomination History of Tsarskoye Selo in Persons .

The historical essay

More than one thousand years ago all places, where Peter the Great founded the New Russian capital, had been settled by Slavs and the Finish tribes. The beginning chronicle and the oldest Scandinavian "sagas" had known the rivers : Neva, Ladoga, Ilmenj, Luga. The Saint Olga had definited the size of tribute and made the administrative centers near the river Neva countryside.

During hundreds years the lands on the banks of the rivers Luga, Narova and Neva and their flows Slavjanka, Izhora , Mga were the ownership of the all layers of Novgorods' citizens , of the Tsar, of the prince, of churches and monasteries. During three centuries struggle between Novgorod and Swedes the lands till the Narova did not know the other authority than the authority of Novgorod. The territory where the luxuriant residence of imperial court appeared - The Tsar's village, was included from the oldest time to Novgorods' lands.
At the second quarter of the XIII century , the Sweden from one side and the German knights from the other side made up their minds to subordinate themselves the Novgorods' tributers and to catch the key for Novgorod's trade - the flowing of the river Neva, using the problem situation of the Russian land.
The end of the XVI th and the beginning of the XVII th centuries had been known by the great success of Swedes. For the first time the banks of the river Neva and the cities Ivan - Gorod, Koporje, Jama and Korella had to admit the power of the Sweden King. Peter the Great began the crucial struggle with Sweden and when he only conquered with his army the flowing of the river Neva, he founded at its mouth the capital. The war with Sweden had not been ended when the Tsar felt himself so strong at the returning lands to Russia, that began to built "the funny palaces" around his "paradise", encouraging for making the same his court. Orienbaum, The Tsar's village, Peterghof, Ekateringhof had been built long before the end of the Great Northern war. The debate with Sweden continued the whole one hundred years.
Peter the Great found the region without people and empty: a lot of villages kept the old Russian names but they were settled by Finns and German colonists.

Taken the mouth of the river Neva Peter the Great made his favourite Alexander Danilovich Menshikov the Governor of Ingermanlandija, Karelija and Estljandija.

In 1710 Peter the Great decided to hand over the part of the Menshikov's ownership to Ekaterina Alexeevna, who was not Empress yet. The date of the foundation of the Tsar's village is the 24th of June 1710, which was spoken about in the letter: - His Majesty is pleased to give to Ekaterina Alexeevna Sarskaja and Koporskaja granges in the Koporskiji uyezd with the villages which are owned to them, with the peasants and the all places, and when you get it those granges with all owned to it villages and others give to her, to Ekaterina Alexeevna, and from the accountant books those granges write off, and all that there will be for getting off you write down and send to me the register-
As Ekaterina Alexeevna entered into the ownership of Sarskaja "myza", which officially became the Tsar's village since 1725, she began to make it better. During the life of Peter the Great The Empress Ekaterina Alexeevna founded the beginning of the small park around the new stone wards and ordered to make the part of the forest as the Zoo (the natural place where the wild animals lived) , she also ordered to surround it with the fence. Exept the alder grove and the fir "perspectives" ( synonym of the word "prospect"), planted by the broad of the park, the garden master Jan Rosen had been charged to plant along the nowadays Sadovaja street the wide fruit garden and to make frames and greenhouses near the fence of the Zoo.

When Katherin I died the Tsar's village became the ownership of the Princes Elizaveta by the spirit will of Katherin I. She had to spend money for repairing of the Tsar's village chambers but she tried to spend as little as she could, though it was her favourite place. The fruit garden, haymaking, frames and quit - rent - all it spent to cover the consumptions of the Tsarskoye Selo.
. Each rouble was counted by the Princes. She counted her money for consumptions very carefully and spent them with great care. She lived only using money from her ownerships only during 18 years. The singular luxury which she allowed herself during that hard period of her life was the building of the stone Znamenskaya church, where she wanted to place especially honored by her the icon of the Sign of the God's mother. There is great difference between the modestest consumptions of the Princes for her favourite ownership during her hard long life period and the fairy consumptions which he made when she became the Empress. Nothing seemed to her enough beautiful for decorations. In the Tsar's village the splendid stone building with marble columns , with light halls, with the parquet and marble floors with the shining dome and monumental stairs decorated with gilding rails, balustrades and statues appeared. Rasstrelly surrounded all the Zoo with the stone wall and built in it the hunting pavilions in the corners (lustghaus) and the splendid stone "Monbizhu" in the center; All is lighted with gilding and marble; the painters were painting the walls, the doors were decorated by rich carving . The Empress did not like the big quantity of the serving men and that is why Rasstrelly made the project of Hermitage where tables, dishes and plates were given by the unseeing hand and the serving men was not need. The small villages with a lot of people who were depended on the palace quickly grew around the Tsarskoye Selo. There workers, contractors, masters, painters, architectors, court's service men army's' commands, civil servants and faces of the Tsar's suite lived.

During the 30-s years reign of the Empress Katherin II the Tsar's village got the highest point of its prosperity. Than better the state business was than more money the Empress spent for her favourite residence. By the end of the reign of Katherin II the Tsar's village changed unrecognizable : Alexandrovskiy palace was built, Bolshoy palace was made bigger with the annexe of Agates rooms, Cameron's gallery, the great prince corps, the superstructure of the Church corps and Zubov's corps; the gardens were made wider and decorated with a lot of new buildings and monuments in honor of Empress's comrades - in - arms; on the other side of the lake the uyezd's city Sophia appeared. The city Sophia and Sophijiskiy Cathedral had to hymn the victories of Russia in the Russian - Turkish war like the monuments in the Tsar's village park.
The best architectors of that time were called by the Empress from the abroad. They were A. Rinaldy, Ch. Cameron, G. Kvarneghy. They decorated by their works the palace and the park. V. Neelov was sent abroad with his son for perfecting. Paying attention to the shortage of water, Katherin II ordered to make the water-pipe from Taitsy, which could be enough for feeding ponds and for giving enough drinkable water to the Tsar's village and Sophia. All, that Katherin II made in the Tsar's village, was made firmly, widely, carefully finished and consistented in details.
From all countrys' residences Katherin II liked the Tsar's village most of all. Beginning from 1763, exept 2 or 3 years, she lived in the Tsar's village during spring, summer and left it in autumn when it became cold. Katherin II moving to the Tsar's village with the small suite devided her time between state's business and different entertainments. Every day she walked in the park with the suite of court ladies and gentlemen.
In November 1796 Her Majesty was caught heart attack, from which she died. She had been alive when the legatee of the throne began to break all that had been done by the Empress. The hard time of Emperor Pavel began. It lasted 5 years. All unfinished buildings were stopped in the Tsar's village.
During the first years of reign of Alexander I the Tsar's village was forgotten, as it seemed.

The court lived on the Elagin island or in Peterghof in summer; only in 1808 The Emperor paid attention to the neglect of the Tsar's village. The Emperor Alexander I, who spent all his childhood and youth in the Tsar's village, as it's known, in the manifesto about the entry to the throne said that he would reign "by law and by heart of the memory of his favourite died grandmother Empress Katherin the Great". At the attention to the Tsar's village these words were the leading for the Emperor in all measures.
The monumental gate "For my dear colleagues" was made in honor of the war with the French, the Big gate, which was almost destroyed, was capitally rebuilt by one of the best architectors of that time - Stasov; not far from the Alexander's palace the Emperor's farm appeared; on the place of the old lustghaus the artificial ruin Shapel was built; the old fence from the Zoo was taken to pieces and its material was used in the building of the farm and Shapel and building for Lams. By the idea of the Emperor Alexander , in the Bolshoy palace , in the wing which was built at the end of Ekaterina's reign for Pavel's children the new highest school was established - The Emperor's Tsar's village Lyceum.
At the last time the Emperor slept in the Tsar's village in 1825 by the way to Taghanrog, saying good bye in such unusual way with St.-Petersburg. Here in early spring his remains were met by the Emperor Nicole I and the tsar's family.
Born in the Tsarskoye Selo, "knight Nicole", when he became the Emperor, devided his rest between Peterghof and the Tsarskoye Selo. His Majesty always lived in Alexander's palace.
At the reign of Nicole I the decoration and the development of the Tsar's village continued. The City's Central Cathedral was built in the Tsar's village by the order of His Majesty; in the park on the place of old "Monbizhu " the building of Arsenal was finished in which the richest collection of weapon was gathered which was the ownership of the Emperor. On the place of abolished lyceum passion Alexander's cadet corps for small children was made; the park was decorated by the beautiful gate, Turkish bath and it was made wider.
In the reign of Emperor Nicole I, the first Russian railroad was built from St.-Petersburg till the Tsar's village , which was a new performance for people and unuseful thing in our climate for specialists. In the reign of Emperor Alexander II the city continued to develop and there was opened the classical gymnasium, there wasn't built any new buildings but all that was there was kept in good order and there was founded the new Babolov's park.
In the reign of Emperor Alexander III the court lived in the Tsar's village few. His Majesty chose for himself the left wing of Alexander's palace. During that reign the Tsar's village was the first city not only in Russia but in Europe which was full lighted with the electricity. Since 1894 the Tsar's village developed very quickly . Till 1905 the court spent the beginning of winter and early spring in the Tsar's village, and since that year it spent there all winter. By the order of His Majesty in 1895 the considerable changes were made in Alexander's palace. The Tsar's village got the best water - pipe and sewerage.
The Tsar's village became one of the most healthy and well - equipped cities in Russia by the beginning of XX century.

Nicole II who would have to be the last Russian Emperor, was born in Alexander's palace. It was his favourite palace in the Tsar's village and there Nicole II brought his fiancee, the Princes Alice Gessenkaya. Since 1905 Alexander's palace became the constant house for the tsar's family. The sessions of the State Council and the auditions of foreign envoys were in the Alexander's palace. There the ministers came with their reports, since that time the Tsar's village became the small capital of the tsar's empire. .

On the 2nd of March 1917 the Tsar renounced from the throne. Some days later, returning from the Headquarters of the commander - in - chief , he became the prisoner in his own house. The tsar's family spent there some months. In August 1917 the family was sent to Siberia. During the night of 17th of July 1918 the tsar's family was shooted in the cellar of the Ipatiev's house in Ekaterinburg.
1917 was the destroyed whirlwind which carried over the Tsar's village. And it changed all life in the Tsar's village. Pushkin became one of the provincial cities in Russia. But all treasures of palaces were opened for sightseeing. Since 1919 after discharging the leading art quides from their work the squandering of the museum values began. The documents, which were opened at the last time, have shown there was made the whole plan of removing numbers of pictures to the Hermitage. At the same time a lot of " little value" things , which were the ownership of the tsar's family, were given to the workers of the museum - Ekaterininskiy palace - by the decision of Narcompros (the National Committee of the Education).
But especially great losses for the museum collections were made by the activity of Expert committee organized in February 1919 and leaded by A.M. Gorkiy. Its functions included the complication of Antiquarian export fund from the nationalized culture value which cost some milliard gold roubles. Then for organizating and making the communications with the biggest antiquarian firms of the West M.F Andreeva was sent to Berlin, and other members of the committee were sent to Paris, London, Florence and Rome
A lot of organizations took part in withdrawal of the priceless things from the palace collections. That is spoken in the decrees of the Defense Council of 10th October 1919 about " the using the values for turnover" , in theses of Sovnarcom (the Council of the National Knights) about the organization of "tax fund" by using the Jewels for getting credit from the foreign banks, in the decree of Sovnarcom of the 26th of October 1920 established the prize for " the quickest selling things abroad, which were taken off by the Petrograd Expert Committee".
Further the withdrawal of apart art products was made not only by using the writing orders but simply by using telephonograms.
But exepting all problems connected with the new historical period in the country life , the museum life was regulated in the museums and parks of the city. In the 30-s the excursion and exploring works were begun, very modest quantity of quide books were printed, the new exhibitions were opened. At the first time the millions of tourists saw the treasures of the Russian culture.
In 1937 , when it was 100 years of Pushkin's death, the city got the name of the great Russian poet - Pushkin
The dangerous word "the war" came to the peace life on 22nd of June 1941 in sunny day during the great falk fairy in the Pushkins' parks. On the 17th of September the fascists caught the city. Invaders took the halls of Katherine's and Alexander's palaces, a lot of houses, kindergartens, schools and sanatoriums for the barracks and living - rooms. In the Lyceum the tankmen lived, in the pavilion "Hermitage" the anti - aircraft gunners lived.
Their staff was in Alexander's palace, there also the Gestapo was, in the palaces' cellars there was the prison. The ground floor of Alexander's palace was changed into a big garage, Dvortsovaya church became the parking and the repairing place for bicycles.

Two and half years the invaders were in Pushkin. A lot of people who were born and lived in Pushkin were sent to concentration camps. People were shooted for the smallest breach of the invaders' rules. The executions took place in the center of the city. On one of such places there the Chapel of Saint Specious Prince Igor Chernigovskiy was founded in 1998.
In summer 1942 the walls of the famous Amber room were taken away, and it is founded till nowadays
On the 14th of January the attack of the Soviet army began for the break of the blockade, and on the 24th of January Pushkin was free from the German invaders.
At the years after the war the city Pushkin became the treasure-house of the Russian architecture, literature and art, like the bird Phoenix was reborn from the ashes.

And nowadays the comfortable Pushkins' streets are especially good in the warm spring evenings when in park's alleys along the city roads; in the yards lilac bloom violent, the new green leaves appear on the trees, the air smells unforgettable.

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Oleg Novikov
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