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Vsyo te dje myi: nam tseliy mir tchugbina; Otechestvo nam Tsarskoe Selo... Alexander Pushkin

Pushkin contemporaries.

Pushchin Ivan Ivanovich (1798-1859)

He was one of the closest lyceum’s friends of Pushkin, his "first" and "priceless" friend. In the marks’ list he attested in such way: " In Latin and Russian languages - the splendid success and more hard, than brilliant, has rare diligance, happy talent". In the report of very miserable to marks M. A. Korf it is written: " With bright mind, clear soul, with the most noble purposes, he was the favourite of all comrades in Lyceum". Pushkin made friendship with Pushchin till the entrance exams, and that friendship was unchanged till the great poet death.
His love and devotion to friend the poet said in the poems row "To Pushchin", "Memoirs", "Here lies the illness student" and "To Pushchin’s album" at the end of Lyceum’s graduating.

Ты вспомни быстрые минуты первых дней,
Неволю мирную, шесть лет соединенья,
Печали, радости, мечты души твоей,
Размолвки дружества и сладость примиренья...

After the Lyceum’s graduating Pushchin entered to the Guardian Horse Artillery, and in 1823 he went to civil service into Moscow Court Judge, where he had the modest referee place. He energy fought with bribery (corruption) and with unjustment and as one of his contemporaries said, that he was "the first honest man, who ever sat at the Russian State Council".Friends were not met again. The December’s revolution in 1825 separated them. Decembrist Pushchin was sent to penal servitude (hard labour) because of the taking part in it. After a year Pushchin got heartfelt Pushkin’s poem "My favourite friend, my priceless friend" , which was written to exile.

Молю святое провиденье:
Да голос мой душе твоей
Дарует то же утешенье,
Да озарит он заточенье
Лучом лицейских ясных дней!

    Delvig Anton Antonovich (1798-1831)

"Nobody in the world wasn’t closer to me than Delvig" - wrote Pushkin to P. A. Pletnev, shacked by the news of the early death of his friend and some time later: "Except of his nice talent, it was the best made head and the soul of unusual kind. He was the best of us". Delvig began to write poems very early and he was the first lyceumist, who began to publish. He was the owner of the first published review about Pushkin, who, at that time was unknown to reading publicity.

Пушкин! Он и в лесах не укроется:
Лира выдаст его громким пением,
И от смертных восхитит бессмертного
Аполлон на Олимп торжествующий.

During his years in penal servitude they were in correspondence with each other, as own as literature character. It was a happy Delvig’s visit to Mihailovskoe in April 1825.

Когда постиг меня судьбины гнев,
Для всех чужой, как сирота бездомный,
Под бурею главой поник я томной
И ждал тебя, вещун пермесских дев,
И ты пришел, сын лени вдохновенный,
О Дельвиг мой: твой голос пробудил
Сердечный жар, так долго усыпленный,
И бодро я судьбу благословил.

Pushkin and Delvig meetings renewed in summer 1827. Petersburg Delvig’s saloon was one of the cultural capital’s centers and Pushkin visited it every day. Its constant visitors were the owner friends P. A. Pletnev, A. Mitskevich, P. A. Vyazemskii, V. A. Zhukovskii, D. M. Somov, M. I, Glinka, M. L. Yakovlev, musicians and actors.

    Kuhelbecker Vilgelm Karlovich (1797-1846)

The poem "To poet - friend", which was the debute of young Pushkin in the Press (1814) , as it counted, was written to his Lyceum’s comrade and poet Kuhelbecker.

Арист, не тот поэт, кто рифмы плесть умеет
И, перьями скрыпя, бумаги не жалеет.
Хорошие стихи не так легко писать,
Как Витгенштеину французов побеждать.

" He was - as his course mate M. A. Korf said, - the subject of our unfinished jokes in Lyceum for his strangeness, awkwardness and funny originality. With his eccentric mind, with argent awfully, with nothing curbed hot-temper, he was always ready to any different curious tricks..."
Inspite of all these, a long years friendship connected Pushkin and Kuhelbecker. He priced in Kuhlya his love to poem, literature taste and erudition.
As he was a member of the North Society, Kuhelbecker took part in the events on the Senate Square on the 14th of December, 1825. He was put into the Peter and Paul Fortress and then sent to settlement to Siberia. Accidental meeting of poets was in October 1827 after Borovichy. Friends "threw to each other embrace".

    Gorchakov Vilgelm Mihailovich. (1798-1883)

Кому ж из нас под старость день Лицея
Торжествовать придется одному?

Несчастный друг! средь новых поколений
Докучный гость и лишний, и чужой,
Он вспоминает нас и дни соединений,
Закрыв глаза дрожащею рукой...

These poems, timed for the Lyceum anniversary in 1825, were written by poet in Mihailovskoe. The last lyceumist of the famous first final-year pupils was the Prince Gorchakov, dead in February 1883. He was one of the first pupils in Tsarskoselskii Lyceum and doubless attracted Pushkin by his uncommon abilities, but to his closest friends he didn’t belong.
Gorchakov had the brilliant serving career. After the Lyceum graduating he went to work to Foreign business College. Later he became the Minister of the foreign business and the State Chancellor. " The happy man of the first days" he was called so by Pushkin. But the successful Gorchakov career was not "covered by roses", as it seemed to contemporaries and descendants. There were his own flights and falls because of disagreement with the Minister of foreign business K. V. Nesseldorf, who was the supporter of reactionary course of Russia. Educated, talented and clever Gorchakov left the seen step in the Russian diplomacy history of that time.

    Zhukovskii Vasilii Andreevich (1783-1852)

Friendship with Zhukovskii played a great role in the Pushkin’s life and work. They became closer in summer 1815 when Zhukovskii visited Pushkin in Lyceum. At that time Zhukovskii was at the zenith of his glory: Lyceumists recited by heart his "Songer in Russian military men camp". Young but famous yet writer and translator at once understood the wideness of young lyceumist talent. "Sweet, lovely creation - he wrote to Vyazemskii - he is a hope of our literature. We all have to connect to help to grow this future giant, who will regrow all us".
Pushkin devoted to Vasilii Andreevich the row of poems and in one of them "To Zhukovskii portrait" foretold his immortality.
Его стихов пленительная сладость
Пройдет веков завистливую даль,
И, внемля им, вздохнет о славе младость,
Утешится безмолвная печаль
И резвая задумается радость.

Really the best Zhukovskii poems are alive today.

    Vyazemskii Petr Andreevich (1792-1878)

Судьба свои дары явить желала в нем,
В счастливом баловне соединив ошибкой
Богатство, знатный род с возвышенным умом
И простодушие с язвительной улыбкой.

So Pushkin wrote about Vyazemskii in 1820. They introduced in 1816 in Tsarskoye Selo and became friends at once. It brought them together the funny - independence attitude to the authorities and striving to create new literature and likeness of tastes.
Correspondence of Pushkin and Vyazemskii gives the bright performance about their friendship. This is endless dialogue of very clever men, in which it is discussed all news of literature and policy, all important questions of that time. " Often one doesn’t agree with his thoughts but they make to think" - wrote Pushkin about Vyazemskii.
Pushkin immortalized his name, taken as epigraph to the "Onegin" first chapter the Vyazemskii poem "The first snow" line: "and life hurried, and hurried to feel".

    Griboedov Alexander Sergeevich (1790-1829)

"I introduced with Griboedov in 1817" - wrote Pushkin in "Travel to Arzrum" - His melancholic character, his embittered mind, his kindness, the most weakness and vices, inevitable satellites of humanity - all was in him unusually and attractively". In 1817 Griboedov went to work to Foreign business College, in summer of the same year Pushkin went to work there after Lyceum graduating. They met at common familiars and in Petersburg literature circuses. By the words of contemporary "Pushkin from the first meeting with Griboedov estimated by dignity priced his bright mind and talents".

    Pletnev Petr Alexandrovich. (1792-1865)

He was a poet and literature critic. Since 1832 he was professor of Russian literature of Petersburg University and later he became a rector of it.
Pushkin introduced with Pletnev till his penal servitude to the South. Their first meeting was in 1816 at poet parents’ house. During 1817 - 1820 they constantly saw each other at the literature "Saturdays" at V. A. Zhukovskii and at the Delvig and Kuhelbecker Society. Closing in wasn’t at once.
Some time later Pletnev took to himself problems of Pushkin compositions publishing. With his participation there was the first chapter of "Onegin" and "Poems of Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin" published (1826).
After Pushkin returning to Saint Petersburg from penal servitude(summer 1827) Pletnev became one of the closest Pushkin friends. At his active participation there were published some chapters of "Onegin", "Prince Nulin", "Poltava", "Boris Godunov", "Belkin’s stories" and others.
His favourite novel in poems Pushkin devoted to Pletnev.

Прими собранье пестрых глав,
Полусмешных, полупечальных,
Простонародных, идеальных,
Небрежный плод моих забав,
Бессонниц, легких вдохновений,
Незрелых и увядших лет,
Ума холодных наблюдений
И сердца горестных замет.

Pletnev is the owner of memorial stories about Pushkin, love to whom he kept till his death.

    Derzhavin Gavriil Romanovich (1743-1816)

In January 1815 at Tsarskoselskii Lyceum there were the first transferred exams from the primary to high classes. In Derzhavin’s presence his poems were declared, he listened to with the unusual liveliness. Pushkin declared "Memoirs in Tsarskoye Selo", stood at 2 steps from the greatest poet. "I was not able to describe the condition of my soul - remembered Pushkin later - When I have read till the lines where the Derzhavin’s name is, my voice rings young and my heart has beaten with intoxicating delight".
Later, Pushkin remembered this great meeting twice in the message "To Zhukovskii" (1816).

... И славный старец наш, царей певец избранный,
Крылатым гением и грацией венчанный,
В слезах обнял меня дрожащею рукой
И счастье мне предрек, незнаемое мной.

    Pushkina Natalie Nikolaevna (1812-1863)

In winter 1828 - 1829 at one of the balls at the well - known dance teacher Peter Iogel, Pushkin met Natasha Gorchakova at first, when she was 16 years old. "When I have seen her - wrote he in April 1830 to his future mother-in-law Natalie Ivanovna - her beauty has been ever seen in the society. I have been in love with her, my head began to go round, I’ve made offer, and Your answer, as it was indefinite, at one moment makes me crazy" The same feelings reflected in the poem "Madonna" devoted to Natalie Nikolaevna:

Исполнились мои желания.Творец
Тебя мне ниспослал, тебя, моя Мадонна,
Чистейшей прелести чистейший образец.

On the 6th of May 1830 there was an engagement and on the 18th of February 1831 there was the long waited wedding.
The condition of diffident in the family happiness was reflected in the poem " My future is decided. I’ll be married" and in the Pushkin’s confession to one of his familiar on the eve at the day before the wedding "I’ll be married without extasy, without child charm. The future appears to me not in roses, but in strick nakedness of itself. Sorrows willn’t be surprise for me..."
After wedding his doubts lifted little by little. "I’ve married - wrote Pushkin to his friend P.A. Pletnev - My will is that nothing changed in my life". The family matrimonial life began, full of happy and grief, happiness and alarms. After not so long being in Moscow in the mid May 1831 the young pair went to Petersburg and stayed there for ever.
At first the success of his wife at the society, literature capital at his friends’ circles made the poet glad. All were delighted with her beauty , elegance, absence of any mincing and simplicity in conversion. Writer V. A. Sologub, known closely Pushkin family, remembered later " I saw a lot of beautiful women in my life, a lot of women I met, who were more charming than Pushkina, but I have never seen such completeness of right characteristics and body". "She is very beautiful and in all her appearance there is something poetric - repeated after Sologub the wife of Australian envoy D. F. Fikelmon - Her body is wonderful, the face lines are right, the mouth is elegant and look, though it isn’t definite, is beauty".
Natalie Nikolaevna was interested in literature business of her husband and carried on calls with booksellers, made his commissions, connected with the publishing of magazine "Sovremennik" (Contemporary). Pushkin devided with his wife by his work plans.
It was sad 1836 year in Pushkin’s life and life of his family. Hunting of society mob and reaction press, and also financial difficulties constantly clouded the poets mood. The Natalie Nikolaevna’s success in the society and at Tsar’s court pricked up Pushkin. His letters to wife were full of reproaches and advises to keep herself suitably in "that pork Petersburg". "Keep herself. Don’t add family’s disturbness"
Dantes carrying along and his persistent tendings overcrowded Pushkin’s cup of patience. At all her restrainness of her behavior in society, the public gossips and scandals played their role. Drama ripened quickly and the shoots on the Chernaya rechka (the Black river) finished the inevitable denouement...
Saying Good - bye to his wife Pushkin said to her " Go to village, wear mourning by me for 2 years and then get married, but for a man who is decent". So Natalie Nikolaevna made. After her husband death she took her children (Alexander, Gregory, Marie and Natalie) and went to the ownership of her elder brother ":Polotnyaniy zavod", after Kaluga, where she lived about 2 years.
In 1844 Natalie Nikolaevna got married at the second time at the commander of Capital Horse regiment the general - major Petr Petrovich Lanskoy (1799 - 1877), with whom she was happy.
Faithful to the husband’s memory and in the children’s’ interests, Natalie Nikolaevna made the participation in the publishing of the new edition of Pushkin compositions.
Natalie Nikolaevna lived fir 51 years and 3 months and died on the 26th of November 1863. She was buried at the Alexandra - Nevskaya Lavra Cemetery in Petersburg.

    Dantes Zhorzh - Karl. (1812-1895)

...Его убийца хладнокровно
Навел удар... спасенья нет:
Пустое сердце бьется ровно.
В руке не дрогнул пистолет.
И что за диво?.. издалека,
Подобно сотням беглецов,
На ловлю счастья и чинов
Заброшен к нам по воле рока;
Смеясь, он дерзко презирал
Земли чужой язык и нравы;
Не мог щадить он нашей славы,
Не мог понять в сей миг кровавый,
На что он руку поднимал!..

So Lermontov described , without names visitor - adventure Dantes, the killer of the great poet.
With the recommendation of the important persons to Nicole I he went to Russia and in the break of all rules , he was accepted in February 1834 as cornet to the privilege cavalry regiment . Adopted later by Niderland’s envoy in Russia Luy Geckeren, Dantes was taken into the Petersburg society, where, as D.F. Fikelmon said, he "forgot any charm of clever man, broken any society decencies...". Alexander Karamzin knew Dantes well he thought that he was " the most nonentity as moral as mind attitude".
Pushkin met Dantes at the high society meetings and balls and also in Karamzin and Vyazemskii saloons. At the end of 1835 Dantes became to tend open at Natalie Nikolaevna Pushkina and some time later it became the subject for gossips and scandals.
Anonymous lampoons with hints to faithless of Natalie Nikolaevna were gotten by Pushkin and his nearest familiars at the beginning of November 1836. The poet duel was stopped by forced wedding of Dantes at N. E. Goncharova - the sister of Natalie Nikolaevna, but that didn’t stop "bad behavior" of Dantes to the attention of Natalie Nikolaevna, as Pushkin wrote about it in the letter - call to Geckeren of the 26th of January 1837. Next day there was the fateful duel for poet after which Dantes was judged, degraded to soldiers and on the 19th of March he was sent out of Russia. In France later he became Senator and had very right political position.

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Oleg Novikov
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