Pushkina Nadezhda Osipovna
She was poet’s mother. She was a granddaughter of Peter I’s favourite who was Ibragim
Hannibal. She was a well - educated woman, she knew French literature well, "charmed
the society by beauty, wit and gaiety". Her hot temper , obstinacy and ambitions were
the reason of trouble at family and at house. She didn’t care much about bringing up of
her children, she was indifferent to her eldest son Alexander - the future poet,
preferring him to her daughter Olga and her favourite Levushka. Life with parents gave
little happiness to poet before and after his studies in the Lyceum. "Their house -
M.A. Korf wrote - was always like chaos: in one room there was rich ancient furniture; in
an other room there were empty walls and there wasn’t any chair..." "My small
and simple room" - is how poet described his modest room in a letter to his close
acquaintance V.V. Engelgardt (1819).
Being with family in Mikhailovskoye penal servitude only doubled his grief. Evidently,
Nadezhda Osipovna shared her husband’s opinion who reproached Alexander for trying to
make Olga and Lev atheists. Caring about her son’s health, Nadezhda Osipovna on the
advice of Karamzin and Zhukovskii, appealed to His Majesty twice with a petition to make
his fate easier.
Next years Pushkin who lived with parents in St. Petersburg visited them rather often. In
her letters to Olga Nadezhda Osipovna told her about meetings with her son and his
charming wife and "friendly spoke of them". During her last illness Pushkin took
such a great care of her that she felt sorry for having treated him badly in his
childhood. After her death he complained to fate that he so " short period used
mother’s delicacy. Pushkin brought her body for burying to Svyatogorskii cloister and
said that his will was to be buried together with his mother.
As a poet’s acquaintance A.N. Wulf said, Pushkin and his mother "lie now under one
stone, closer to each other, than they had ever been".
Pushkin Sergei Lvovich.
He’s father’s poet. He was a well - educated man. M.A. Korf, Lyceum Pushkin comrade,
knew him well and he said about him that he was " a nice interlocutor in the manner
of old French school, with jokes and puns, but as a matter of fact he was empty and muddle
- headed person. From childhood enlisted to the army, he served not very long in Leib -
Guardian Egerskii Regiment, later he was an official in Komisariatskii state in Moscow and
in Kommisariatskaya commission of reserved army in Warsaw. In 1817 he retired as
Councillor of State. He wrote poems and also "novels" and was on good terms with
N.M. Karamzin, I.I. Dmitriev, K.N. Batyushkov, P.A. Vyazemskii, V.A. Zhukovskii. He
didn’t carry much about bringing up of his children, he was indifferent to his eldest
son Alexander and little by little they became alien to each other. In autumn 1814 Sergei
Lvovich moved to St. Petersburg and often visited his son in Tsarskoye Selo. After
graduating the Lyceum the young poet lived in his parents’ house. Life there was neither
well - to - do nor comfortable.
During south penal servitude poet didn’t correspond with his father, didn’t get money
from him and was obliged to live at his yearly salary, which was 700 roubles and
nonsystematic literature payment. During the Mikhailovskoye penal servitude period 1824 -
1826 their relations became hostile. Sergei Lvovich’s agreement to take official
supervision over his disgraced son was taken by Alexander as espionage after him. Years
passed... A lot changed in poets life, he became famous and in his parents family.
Nadezhda Osipovna’s and her husband’s correspondence with their daughter Olga has been
preserved (1828 - 1835). Among stories about small things of every day life, questions
about health anf weather there were often mentions about Alexander , that was the evidence
of enough improvement of relationship with their son. When the tragic duel took place,
Sergei Lvovich was in Moscow. E.A. Baratynskii visited him "at that minute when he
was told about that accident. He didn’t want to believe it for a long time.
S.L. Pushkin left short memoirs about his genius son.
Childhood years. (1799-1811)
Childhood years Pushkin spent in Moscow and in Selo Zakharov around Moscow. The future
poet grew in impoverished nobility’s family. His father - Sergei Lvovich - charged to
his wife Nadezhda Osipovna to bring up their children. The beauty - "creole" was
absorbed by society duties. Grandmother Mary Alexeevna Cannibal and serf nurse Arina
Rodionovna and also a lot of teachers, who were mostly foreigners carry much about
bringing up of Alexander, Marry, Lev and Olga it.
Grandmother had "bright mind and she was well - educated of her time". Boy
listened to her stories about the Pushkins and the Cannibals, whose names found their
place on the Russian history pages.
As Olga Sergeevna said, Arina Rodionovna was "the real envoy of Russian nurses: she
spoke tales as master, knew folk superstition and a lot of proverbs and sayings. Alexander
Sergeevich loved her from childhood". Alexander was over charitable influence of the
Pushkins’ serf, his uncle Nikita Timofeevich Kozlov. They made walks around Moscow and
its countryside together, visited sightseeings of ancient capital and folk fairs.
At Pushkin parents’ house educated literary men as N.M. Karamzin, I.I. Dmitriev, V.A.
Zhukovskii, (reference to the part "Pushkin contemporaries") K.N. Batyushkov,
V.L. Pushkin gathered. As first biographer P.V. Annenkov said: future poet,
"attentively listened to their opinions and talking, knew coryphaeys of our
literature not only by their works but by the alive words..."
A lot of hours he spent in libraries of his father, his uncle and family acquaintance D.R.
Buturlin, who was the owner of unique books collection. Sometimes father read to children
Moljer at French. It influenced to alive imagination of 9 year old boy and woke "the
spirit of imitation and authorship". He wrote fables and changed chapters of Moljer
and Walter in comedy "Pohititel" (Kidnapper) and in funny poem
"Toliada". That was the first literature step of future poet.
Lyceum period. (1811-1817)
It was October,19 in 1811. At that day the celebration of Lyceum opening (reference to the
part "By Pushkin places") took place. The Tsar family, officials of high rank
and quests, teachers and tutors, 30 alumnis and Pushkin among them gathered in the
assembly hall. The 6 years Lyceum life began. Nice teachers leaded Lyceum. They had
forward beliefs. They were V.F. Malinovskii and then E.A. Engelgardt. The experienced
teachers were invited to read lections: A.P. Kunitsyn, I.K. Kaidanov, N.F. Koshanskii,
D.E. de Burdi. They taught to a lot: Russian, French, German and Latin languages,
literature, sciences, logic, political economy, mathematics, physic, military affair.
There were more the humanities than others.
First three years of Lyceum’s studies finished with transfer exams. At one of them
venerable poet G.R. Derzhavin listened to young Pushkin declamation "Memoirs in
Tsarskoye Selo" enthusiastically (reference to the part "Pages of Pushkin
poetry"). It was in January 1815.
Belinskii said that "The future reformatory of Russian poetry and future national
poet" was seen in Pushkin Lyceum’s poems.
Petersburg youth (1817-1820)
New period of Pushkin’s life began. He served in Foreign Affair College. And that work
didn’t attract him. His brother said, he was "at all used by his youth, he was
attracted by either high society or noisy feasts". He close rubbed shoulders with
"desperate hussars" P.P. Kaverin, P.H. Molostov, P.D. Solomirskii. Pushkin said
about it in poem "To Kaverin".
Молись и Вакху и любви.
И черни презирай ревнивое роптанье:
Она не ведает,что дружно можно жить
С Киферой, с портиком, и с книгой, и с бокалом;
Что ум высокий можно скрыть
Безумной шалости под легким покрывалом.
Pushkin became mouthpiece of free thoughtful, educated nobility’s youth and it made him
closer with future decembrists. We saw him at "Prosperity union"
"gatherings" where poet read his poetic epigram and satiric poems of especial
form - "noels" about the Tsar and his court.
The south penal servitude. (1820-1824)
In May 1820 Pushkin was sent out of St. Petersburg because of free thoughtful poems and
epigrams about the Tsar and his court. After short visit to Ekaterinoslavl disgraced poet
with the Raevskie went to Caucus mineral waters and then to Krym where he stayed with them
till the mid of September.
In September 1820 Pushkin went to Kishinev to be at general - major I.N. Smirnov disposal.
There poet found well disposed and kind chief.
Last year of his penal servitude Pushkin spent in Odessa.
During south penal servitude Pushkin poetric talent was on his prime. It got stronger,
Pushkin’s lyra sounded variously. It consists of intimate feelings and philosophy
thoughts, political price of unattractive Russian reality and perception of far past.
...В разны годы
Под вашу сень, Михайловские рощи,
Являлся я; когда вы в первый раз
Увидели меня, тогда я был -
Веселым юношей, беспечно, жадно
Я приступал лишь только к жизни...
So, Pushkin remembered his first visit to Mikhailovskoye in summer 1817. Six times more
poet visited native places (1819. 1824 - 1826. 1827, 1830, 1835, 1836). He described it as
"shelter of quiet and inspiration" where he spent about two and half years.
Life in Mikhailovskoye was bright reflected in Pushkin works. There, as A.I. Turgenev
said, poet found colors and materials for his fancy so natural and true, which were agreed
with prose and poetry of countryside life of Russia.
September 1826... Pushkin returned to Moscow. He wasn’t there for 15 years.
Как часто в горестной разлуке,
В моей блуждающей судьбе,
Москва, я думал о тебе!
Москва... как много в этом звуке
Для сердца русского слилось!
Как много в нем отозвалось!
Moscow solemnly met its poet. News about his returning spreaded around ancient capital. As
his contemporary said, "crowds of people went after glorious singer of Elborus and
When Pushkin came to Moscow, the intention of his friends to publish their own magazine
began to realize. It was called "Mockovskieye vedomosti" (Moscow news).
Pushkin met magazine’s publishing with sympathy. He agreed to participate actively in
At the mid of May 1827 Pushkin moved from Moscow to Petersburg.
Later poet came to Moscow often, but his visits were short. They were caused by literature
- published, financial and family business.
Last time Pushkin visited Moscow in May 1836. He collected materials for future
"Peter’s history", for magazine in "Sovremennik" (Contemporary). He
visited friends and colleagues also.
Во время оное, былое!..
В те дни ты знал меня, Кавказ,
В свое святилище глухое
Ты призывал меня не раз.
В тебя влюблен я был безумно,
Меня приветствовал ты шумно
Могучим гласом бурь своих...
That is Pushkin’s impression of two last visits to North Caucus and Zakhavkazye.
Poet visited that place in summer 1829. At that time there was the Russian Turkish war.
Russia fought for the release of primordial Russian lands from foreign yoke. In his
"Travel to Arzrum" poet described his visit to war actions - theatre in details
and his meetings with real heroes of Russian weapon victories. Among them there were a lot
of people who were agreed with ideas of decembrist’s movement.
Tverskoi region (1828-1833)
Ancient Tverskaya land is reflected in Pushkin life and work essentially. Poet was there
often and for a long time. He was there in late autumn 1828, in January, March, October
and November 1829, in spring 1830 and in summer 1831.
A lot of pages are written in Tverskoye region. They are filled with poet pictures; face
portraits and landscapes of that picturesque places. He drew those people with whom he
Nowadays Tverskoye region attracts a lot of visitors. In Bernovo and Torzhok museums are
open. They are devoted to great poet. "Novel in letters" was written there. It
shown the poet’s impression about way of life of provincial country estate.
Boldino (1830, 1833, 1834)
Boldino took a great place in Pushkin’s biography.
Every Pushkin visit to Boldino concurred with his favourite season. "And each autumn
I "bloomed" again", - told Pushkin in his poem "Autumn".
At the first days of his visit to Boldino Pushkin wrote to Pletnev (reference to part
"Pushkin contemporaries") "What a beautiful village here’s! Imagine:
steppe and steppe; there are no neighbors, you can ride as much as you want, you can write
poems at home as much as you want, nobody prevents you. I’ll prepare you different
things either prose or poems.
Povolzhye and Orienburgskii region.( (1833)
The beginning of 1830-s years was the time of hard historical Pushkin lessons. He was
interested in events of recent past: the peasant war under Emyelyan Pugachev leading (1733
A.S. Pushkin made a trip to Povolzhye and Orienburgskii region where events had been.
Pushkin was glad of his trip and later he wrote "I visited places where the main
epoch’s events which were described by me had been; I tested documents by the words of
alive but oldest eye-witnesses and again tested their decrepit memory by historical
Pushkin was forced to be absentin Petersburg during 7 years. He returned there in May
1827. North capital changed a lot.
Город пышный, город бедный,
Дух неволи, стройный вид,
Свод небес зелено-бледный,
Скука, холод и гранит...
During 1827 - 1830 Pushkin lived in Petersburg from visit to visit. Work and own
business made poet to visit the capital, Mikhailovskoye, Moscow, Tverskoye region,
Zakharyevskoye, Polotnyaniy Zavod in Kaluzhskii region.
In February 1831 after wedding and short visit to Moscow Pushkin became Petersburg
In May 1831 the Pushkins moved to Petersburg. Summer and autumn they spent in Tsarskoye
Selo. "I live here, in Tsarskoye Selo, at Kitaeva’s country - house (reference to
the part "By Pushkin places"), at the big road. - Pushkin wrote to his friends.
- We live here quiet and funny, as in village’s out-of-the-way place.
Kitaeva’s country - house has become the Pushkin memorial museum(dacha) nowadays.
Pushkin’s meetings with Lyceum comrades were happy. It became a good tradition to
celebrate every year on October, 19 the opening day of the Lyceum . The Lyceum’s
anniversary in 1836 was the last in poet’s life.
In capital Alexander Pushkin was forced to rub shoulders with many people in high society.
It was hard for him and it drew away his attention from work. Poet was missed finance for
life. It forced him to take credits and at the end of his life his debts were more than
100 thousand roubles. Pushkin clashed with high society which surrounded him and that
ended by duel with Dantes (reference to the part "Pushkin contemporaries").
Tragic end was inevitable.
Pushkin’s work of the second half of 1820 - 1830-s was connected linked with Petersburg
theme inseparably. Poet sang the unrepeated beauty of city and rendered proper to its
historical role in fate of Russia.
Люблю тебя, Петра творенье,
Люблю твой строгий, стройный вид,
Невы державное теченье,
Береговой ее гранит,
Твоих оград узор чугунный,
Твоих задумчивых ночей
Прозрачный сумрак, блеск безлунный,
Когда я в комнате моей
Пишу, читаю без лампады,
И ясны спящие громады
Пустынных улиц, и светла